|All information on high blood pressure (hypertension) blood pressure measuring blood pressure causes of high blood pressure high blood pressure level white coat syndrome symptoms of high blood pressure diagnosis of high blood pressure isolated systolic hypertension causes of isolated systolic hypertension white coat hypertension borderline hypertension malignant hypertension labile hypertension pulmonary hypertension renovascular hypertension high blood pressure risk factors complications of high blood pressure body weight and hypertension treatment options for high blood pressure high blood pressure medications lifestyle for hypertension high blood pressure diet
What is white coat hypertension?
White-coat hypertension is a phenomenon in which a patient's blood pressure rises in the presence of a physician and, presumably, returns to normal at home. Some researchers suggest that the incidence of true white coat hypertension is very low, only 5%, and that physicians should always suspect true hypertension when blood pressure is elevated in the office. White coat hypertension should be considered when blood pressure readings are significantly elevated in the absence of
target-organ damage. Home blood pressure monitoring is the best way to diagnose this condition. Ambulatory 24-hour monitoring can be useful in determining if a patient's blood pressure rises during other potentially stressful situations. Home readings should be taken by someone trained in the proper technique, preferably using a cuff with a mercury manometer.
A single elevated blood pressure reading in the doctor's office can be misleading because the elevation may be only temporary. Presumably, such an elevation is caused by the patient's anxiety that is related to the stress of the examination. In fact, the suggestion has been made that about one out of four people that are thought to have mild hypertension actually may have normal blood pressure when they are outside of the physician's office. This sort of elevated blood pressure, that is, an increase noted only in the doctor's office, is called white coat hypertension. The name, of course, suggests that the white coat, which is symbolic for the physician, induces the patient's anxiety and a passing increase in blood pressure. A diagnosis of white coat hypertension might imply that it is not a clinically important or dangerous finding.
However, caution is warranted in such an innocent interpretation of white coat hypertension. An elevated blood pressure that is induced by the stress and anxiety of a visit to the doctor may not necessarily always be a harmless finding. Other stresses in the patient's life may likewise cause elevations in the blood pressure that are not ordinarily being measured. Accordingly, monitoring the blood pressure at home or at a pharmacy can help estimate the frequency and consistency of higher blood pressure readings. Additionally, conducting appropriate tests to search for any complications of hypertension can help evaluate the significance of variable blood pressure readings.
More information on high blood pressure
What is blood pressure? - Blood pressure or arterial blood pressure is the pressure (force per unit area) exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels.
What is high blood pressure (hypertension)? - High blood pressure or hypertension means high pressure (tension) in the arteries. High blood pressure is generally defined as a level exceeding 140/90 mm Hg that has been confirmed on multiple occasions.
How to measure blood pressure? - Arterial blood pressure is usually measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) using a sphygmomanometer.
What causes high blood pressure? - High blood pressure is far more common in families where other members have this condition. There are also many other factors which are related to high blood pressure.
At what level is blood pressure too high? - Blood pressure is generally felt to be abnormally high at a level of 140/90, and some sort of definitive therapy and follow-up should be started at this level.
What is "white coat syndrome"? - "White coat syndrome" is a situation where patients have high blood pressure in the doctor's office but nowhere else.
What're the symptoms of high blood pressure? - High blood pressure usually causes no symptoms. Sometimes people with high blood pressure have symptoms including headache, dizziness, blurred vision and nausea.
How is high blood pressure diagnosed? - The diagnosis of high blood pressure is made on the basis of many blood pressure readings. It is diagnosed if several readings show a systolic blood pressure greater than 140 or a diastolic blood pressure greater than 90.
What is isolated systolic hypertension? - Isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is defined as elevated systolic blood pressure in conjunction with normal diastolic blood pressure (<90 mm Hg).
Why and how isolated systolic hypertension (ISH ) develops? - Factors that may play a role in the high prevalence of ISH seen in Western societies include increased body fat, sedentary lifestyle, and increased sodium intake.
What is white coat hypertension? - White coat hypertension should be considered when blood pressure readings are significantly elevated in the absence of target-organ damage.
What is borderline hypertension? - Borderline hypertension is a blood pressure level which is in the 'gray zone' between normal and high (for example, someone with an average pressure of about 140/90 mmHg).
What is malignant hypertension (arteriolar nephrosclerosis)? - Malignant hypertension is an acute emergency requiring immediate treatment in hospital.
What is labile hypertension? - 'Labile' means variable, and just about everyone with hypertension has 'lablie hypertension.'
What is pulmonary hypertension? - Pulmonary hypertension is high blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation (the arteries which go to the lungs). The blood pressure in the arms and the rest of the body is normal or low.
What is renovascular hypertension? - Renovascular hypertension is a secondary form of high blood pressure caused by a narrowing of the renal artery.
What're the risk factors for high blood pressure? - Controllable factors contribute to high blood pressure include sodium (salt) sensitivity, obesity and overweight, heavy alcohol consumption, use of oral contraceptives and some other medications, and sedentary or inactive lifestyle.
What're the complications of high blood pressure? - Blood vessels can narrow due to high blood pressure and the accumulation of cholesterol. Blockage of arteries in the brain can lead to stroke. Blockage of blood vessels in the kidneys can lead to kidney failure.
How does body weight affect hypertension? - Studies have shown that body weight, changes in body weight over time, and skinfold thickness are related to changes in blood pressure levels.
What're the treatment options for high blood pressure? - The goal of treatment is to reduce blood pressure to a level where there is decreased risk of complications. Treatment may occur at home with close supervision by the health care provider, or may occur in the hospital.
What medications are available for high blood pressure? - Medications may include diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or alpha blockers.
Which lifestyle modifications are beneficial in treating hypertension? - Lifestyle modifications refer to certain specific recommendations for changes in diet and exercise.
What is a good high blood pressure diet? - A good high blood pressure diet is not only rich in important nutrients and fiber but also includes foods that contain far more electrolytes, potassium, calcium, and magnesium, than are found in the average American diet.