What are the risk factors for vasectomy?
There are very few risks associated with vasectomy other than infection, bruising, epididymitis (inflammation of the tube that carries the sperm from the testicle to the penis), and sperm granulomas (collection of fluid that leaks from a poorly sealed or tied vas deferens). These are easily treated if they do occur. Patients do not experience difficulty achieving an erection, maintaining an erection, or ejaculating. There is no decrease in the production of the male hormone (testosterone), and sex drive and ability are not altered. Vasectomy is safer and less expensive than tubal ligation (sterilization of a female by cutting
the fallopian tube to prevent conception). No death has ever been attributed to this procedure. On the other hand, tubal ligation, a frequently performed surgical sterilization procedure in women, is associated with no fewer than 20 deaths per year. These unnecessary deaths occur because of the risks of the procedure itself, anesthesia complications, and increased ectopic pregnancy rates.
Complications with vasectomy are usually related to bleeding or infection. Prolonged pain sometimes occurs as a result of inflammation along the vas due to sperm leakage (sperm granuloma) or congestion of sperm at the epididymis (epididymitis). These conditions usually go away with rest and anti-inflammatory medication.
Some earlier studies suggested that vasectomy may be associated with an increased risk of heart disease and prostate cancer. According to the National Institutes of Health, research that examined this issue found no evidence that men with vasectomies were more likely than others to develop heart disease or any other immune illness. Other studies, including a recent study of 2,000 men, have shown that the risk of prostate cancer is not increased among vasectomized men.