health care  
 
All about quit smoking & stop smoking health effects of smoking constituents of tobacco smoke smoking and lung cancer smoking and cardiovascular disease smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease other cancers caused by smoking women's health and smoking harm to human body by smoking passive smoking (second hand smoking) health hazards of passive smoking avoiding passive smoking smoking addiction reasons to quit smoking stop smoking cigar smoking and health smoking cessation medications body weight and smoking cessation health benefits of quitting smoking

Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease in which the lung is damaged, making it hard to breathe. In COPD, the airways - the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs - are partly obstructed, making it difficult to get air in and out. Emphysema and bronchitis are examples of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The leading cause of COPD is smoking, which can lead to the two most common forms of this disease, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Prolonged tobacco use causes lung inflammation and variable degrees of air sack (alveoli) destruction. This leads to inflamed and

narrowed airways (chronic bronchitis); or permanently enlarged air sacks of the lung with reduced lung elasticity (emphysema). Between 15-20% of long-term smokers will develop COPD. Rarely, an enzyme deficiency called alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency can cause emphysema in non-smokers. Other risk factors for COPD are passive smoking (exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke from others), male gender, and working in a polluted environment.

Smoking interferes with the body's methods of filtering inhaled air. Chemicals within the smoke, especially hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, ammonia, nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde, have a direct deleterious effect on the cilia, part of the natural lung clearance mechanism in humans. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures which line the bronchial tubes, collect and sweep away impurities which have been inhaled. Interference with this system can result in an accumulation of mucus and toxic agents in the lungs, thereby increasing the likelihood of developing lung disease.

Clinically significant degrees of emphysema occur almost exclusively in cigarette smokers, or in individuals with a genetically determined deficiency in the protein alpha 1-anti-trypsin. This deficiency is thought to affect around one in a thousand in the population, and because of their particular susceptibility to emphysema, they should be specially counselled against smoking. The severity of emphysema among smokers increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the duration of smoking. Almost all smokers of more than twenty cigarettes per day show some degree of emphysema.

The chronic nature of these diseases means that those who develop them may continue to live for many years, with various degrees of discomfort and disability. At their worst, sufferers may be dependent on life support systems.

More information on quitting smoking

How to quit smoking? - Many smokers know they need to quid smoking to avoid health risk. Smoking cessation is of the most importance for people who is suffering from unpleasant smoking symptoms.
What health effects are associated with smoking? - The main health risks in tobacco smoking pertain to diseases of the respiratory tract and also to diseases of the cardiovascular system, in particular smoking being a major risk factor for a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
What're the constituents of tobacco smoke? - Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of several thousand chemical compounds. These include particulates (tar) of sticky solids, gases such as carbon monoxide, and volatiles. Most importantly, the smoke contains nicotine ĘC the addictive drug.
Smoking and lung cancer - Lung cancer is directly related to smoking. Over 40 carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke. The risk of developing lung cancer is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked.
Smoking and cardiovascular disease - There are a number of cardiovascular diseases that can be related to smoking. They include heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Smoking aggravates and accelerates of the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the arterial walls.
Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease in which the lung is damaged, making it hard to breathe. Prolonged tobacco use causes lung inflammation and variable degrees of air sack (alveoli) destruction.
Other cancers caused by or associated with smoking - Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus and larynx. Smoking is a cause of bladder cancer. Cigarette smoking is at least a contributory and may be a causal factor in the development of pancreatic cancer.
Women's health and smoking - Women smokers suffer all the consequences of smoking that men do such as increased of risk various cancers (lung, mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, kidney, and bladder) and respiratory diseases.
Harm to human body by smoking - Chemicals in tobacco cause damage to the macula (the most sensitive part of the retina, the back of the eye). Smoking is a risk factor for all cancers associated with the larynx, oral cavity and oesophagus.
What is passive smoking? - "Passive smoking" or "secondhand smoke" - also known as "environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) or "involuntary smoking" - occurs when the ambient smoke from one person's cigarette is inhaled by other people.
Health hazards of passive smoking - Some of the immediate effects of passive smoking include eye irritation, headache, cough, sore throat, dizziness and nausea. Adults with asthma can experience a significant decline in lung function when exposed, while new cases of asthma may be induced in children whose parents smoke.
How to avoid passive smoking? - Let your visitors know your home is a smoke-free zone, request them to smoke outside. Ask your visitors to put off the cigarette before entering your room. Ask to be seated in non-smoking areas as far from smokers as possible when dining out.
What is a smoking addiction? - A smoking addiction means a person has formed an uncontrollable dependence on cigarettes to the point where stopping smoking would cause severe emotional, mental, or physical reactions.
Why quit smoking? - Smoking increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smokers have twice the risk of dying of heart attacks, as do non-smokers.
How to stop smoking? - Quitting smoking is a lot like losing weight; it takes a strong commitment over a long period of time. Withdrawal from nicotine has two parts - the physical and the psychological.
Cigar smoking and health - A cigar is defined, for tax purposes, as "any roll of tobacco wrapped in leaf tobacco or in any substance containing tobacco," while a cigarette is "any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or any substance not containing tobacco.
What smoking cessation medications are available? - Nicotine for NRT is available by prescription as an inhaler or nasal spray (Nicotrol Inhaler and Nicotrol NS).
Changes in body weight and smoking cessation - Smokers weigh, on average, around 3 kg less than non-smokers, although heavy smokers are more likely to be moderately or severely overweight. For many people, the fear of gaining weight prevents them from quitting smoking.
Health benefits of quitting smoking - Smoking cessation has major and immediate health benefits for men and women of all ages. The health benefits of smoking cessation far exceed any risks from the average 2.3 kg (5 pound) weight gain or any adverse psychological effects that may follow quitting.
Men's health Mainpage

Topics in men's health

Andropause
Atrial septal defect
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Low blood pressure (hypotension)
Cholesterol
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Alcoholism & drinking
Balanitis
Cryptorchidism (undescended testicle)
Orchitis
Epispadias
Bladder exstrophy
Epididymitis
Hypospadias (birth defect)
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Vasectomy
Micropenis
Impotence
Hair Loss (baldness)
Peyronie's disease
Phimosis
Benign prostatic Hyperplasia
Prostatitis
Kidney stones
Quit smoking
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)


All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005, health-cares.net, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005