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All about quit smoking & stop smoking health effects of smoking constituents of tobacco smoke smoking and lung cancer smoking and cardiovascular disease smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease other cancers caused by smoking women's health and smoking harm to human body by smoking passive smoking (second hand smoking) health hazards of passive smoking avoiding passive smoking smoking addiction reasons to quit smoking stop smoking cigar smoking and health smoking cessation medications body weight and smoking cessation health benefits of quitting smoking

What smoking cessation medications are available?

Nicotine for NRT is available by prescription as an inhaler or nasal spray (Nicotrol Inhaler and Nicotrol NS). These other forms of delivery of nicotine seem to work as well as the nicotine patches or gum.

Bupropion hydrochloride (Zyban, Wellbutrin) is a medication that is used primarily for treating depression. This drug, however, also has been found to be effective in helping people to quit smoking. Bupropion is a selective catecholamine (norepinephrine and dopamine) reuptake inhibitor. It has only a small effect on serotonin reuptake. It does not inhibit MAO.


The actual mechanism behind bupropion's action is not known, but it is thought to be due to the effects on dopaminergic and noradrenergic mechanisms. In 1997, bupropion HCl was approved by the FDA for use as a smoking cessation aid. Because the name Wellbutrin was still associated with high seizure risk, the drug was subsequently marketed by Glaxo under the name Zyban to help people stop smoking tobacco by reducing the severity of withdrawal symptoms. It can be used in combination with nicotine replacement therapies. Bupropion treatment course lasts for seven to twelve weeks, the patient halting the use of tobacco around ten days into the course. It is contraindicated in people taking medication for seizure disorders (dilantin, phenobarbital), with bulimia or anorexia, with kidney or liver dysfunctions, or people already taking any monoamine oxidase inhibitor. It can also cause problems with cold remedies, certain herbal supplements, creatine, cimetidine, ephedrine, and diazepam-like medications

Clonidine, a drug which has been used for reducing withdrawal symptoms from opiate and drug use, has the effect of suppressing withdrawal symptoms by acting on inhibitory neurones in the brain stem and by reducing nervous activity in the sympathetic nervous system (generally regarded as being involved in 'fight and flight' impulses). Clonidine seems to be more effective in the heavily addicted, and for women rather than men.

Silver compounds (mouthwash, chewing gum and oral spray): These products serve as an aversion therapy -- silver chloride is formed on contact with saliva, which produces an unpleasant metallic taste in the presence of smoke. The products have not been shown to have long term efficacy, and have been known to produce silver toxicity. The Australian packaging does not warn against prolonged use.

Lobeline is an alkaloid similar to nicotine, but it has not been shown to have any benefits beyond that of placebo. Toxicity causes vomiting and overdose is potentially fatal in small children.

More information on quitting smoking

How to quit smoking? - Many smokers know they need to quid smoking to avoid health risk. Smoking cessation is of the most importance for people who is suffering from unpleasant smoking symptoms.
What health effects are associated with smoking? - The main health risks in tobacco smoking pertain to diseases of the respiratory tract and also to diseases of the cardiovascular system, in particular smoking being a major risk factor for a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
What're the constituents of tobacco smoke? - Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of several thousand chemical compounds. These include particulates (tar) of sticky solids, gases such as carbon monoxide, and volatiles. Most importantly, the smoke contains nicotine ĘC the addictive drug.
Smoking and lung cancer - Lung cancer is directly related to smoking. Over 40 carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke. The risk of developing lung cancer is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked.
Smoking and cardiovascular disease - There are a number of cardiovascular diseases that can be related to smoking. They include heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Smoking aggravates and accelerates of the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the arterial walls.
Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease in which the lung is damaged, making it hard to breathe. Prolonged tobacco use causes lung inflammation and variable degrees of air sack (alveoli) destruction.
Other cancers caused by or associated with smoking - Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus and larynx. Smoking is a cause of bladder cancer. Cigarette smoking is at least a contributory and may be a causal factor in the development of pancreatic cancer.
Women's health and smoking - Women smokers suffer all the consequences of smoking that men do such as increased of risk various cancers (lung, mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, kidney, and bladder) and respiratory diseases.
Harm to human body by smoking - Chemicals in tobacco cause damage to the macula (the most sensitive part of the retina, the back of the eye). Smoking is a risk factor for all cancers associated with the larynx, oral cavity and oesophagus.
What is passive smoking? - "Passive smoking" or "secondhand smoke" - also known as "environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) or "involuntary smoking" - occurs when the ambient smoke from one person's cigarette is inhaled by other people.
Health hazards of passive smoking - Some of the immediate effects of passive smoking include eye irritation, headache, cough, sore throat, dizziness and nausea. Adults with asthma can experience a significant decline in lung function when exposed, while new cases of asthma may be induced in children whose parents smoke.
How to avoid passive smoking? - Let your visitors know your home is a smoke-free zone, request them to smoke outside. Ask your visitors to put off the cigarette before entering your room. Ask to be seated in non-smoking areas as far from smokers as possible when dining out.
What is a smoking addiction? - A smoking addiction means a person has formed an uncontrollable dependence on cigarettes to the point where stopping smoking would cause severe emotional, mental, or physical reactions.
Why quit smoking? - Smoking increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smokers have twice the risk of dying of heart attacks, as do non-smokers.
How to stop smoking? - Quitting smoking is a lot like losing weight; it takes a strong commitment over a long period of time. Withdrawal from nicotine has two parts - the physical and the psychological.
Cigar smoking and health - A cigar is defined, for tax purposes, as "any roll of tobacco wrapped in leaf tobacco or in any substance containing tobacco," while a cigarette is "any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or any substance not containing tobacco.
What smoking cessation medications are available? - Nicotine for NRT is available by prescription as an inhaler or nasal spray (Nicotrol Inhaler and Nicotrol NS).
Changes in body weight and smoking cessation - Smokers weigh, on average, around 3 kg less than non-smokers, although heavy smokers are more likely to be moderately or severely overweight. For many people, the fear of gaining weight prevents them from quitting smoking.
Health benefits of quitting smoking - Smoking cessation has major and immediate health benefits for men and women of all ages. The health benefits of smoking cessation far exceed any risks from the average 2.3 kg (5 pound) weight gain or any adverse psychological effects that may follow quitting.
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All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005, health-cares.net, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005