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All about quit smoking & stop smoking health effects of smoking constituents of tobacco smoke smoking and lung cancer smoking and cardiovascular disease smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease other cancers caused by smoking women's health and smoking harm to human body by smoking passive smoking (second hand smoking) health hazards of passive smoking avoiding passive smoking smoking addiction reasons to quit smoking stop smoking cigar smoking and health smoking cessation medications body weight and smoking cessation health benefits of quitting smoking

Other cancers caused by or associated with smoking

Tobacco smoke contains 43 known carcinogens, including a number of known organ specific carcinogens, and compounds which assist with the formation of carcinogens within the body. Carcinogens and carcinogenic metabolites are carried through the body in the bloodstream, following absorption through the lungs. Smoking also affects metabolism and enzyme activity, which may affect carcinogenesis.

Cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus and larynx: Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus and larynx. Risk is raised with increased exposure to smoke, and diminishes with a decrease in tobacco consumption. The use of alcohol in combination with smoking acts synergistically to greatly increase the risks for these cancers. Heavy smokers have a laryngeal cancer mortality risk 20 to 30 times greater than that of non-smokers. Smokers of low tar cigarettes have been shown to have a lower risk of developing cancer of the larynx, but still have a much higher risk than non-smokers. Long term use of smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or snuff) is a factor in the development of cancers of the oral cavity, particularly cancers of the cheek and gum. In men, approximately 57% of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 54% of cancers of the oesophagus and 73% of cancers of the larynx can be attributed to smoking. For women, the attributable fractions are 51% of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, 46% of cancers of the oesophagus and 66% of cancers of the larynx which can be attributed to smoking.

Cancer of the bladder: Smoking is a cause of bladder cancer. Forty-three percent of male and 36% of female bladder cancers can be attributed to smoking.

Cancer of the kidney: Cigarette smoking is at least a contributory factor and possibly a causal factor in development of cancers of the parenchyma and pelvis of the kidney. Smoking has been estimated to be a factor in 28% of cancers of the kidney parenchyma in males and 21% in females, and 55% of cancers of the kidney pelvis in males and 48% in females.

Cancer of the pancreas: Cigarette smoking is at least a contributory and may be a causal factor in the development of pancreatic cancer. It is estimated that 24% of pancreatic cancer in males and 19% in females is attributable to smoking.

Cancer of the stomach: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cigarette smoking and stomach cancer. It is estimated that 14% of stomach cancer in men and 11% in women can be attributed to smoking.

Cancers of the uterine cervix and vulvar: Women who smoke cigarettes have a greater risk of developing cancers of the cervix and vulvar. For cervical cancer, the relationship appears to be dose-responsive, with one study finding an 80% increased risk of developing the cancer among heavy smokers. It is estimated that 19% of all cases of cervical cancer and 40% of vulvar cancer are caused by smoking.

Cancer of the penis: Increased risk of penile cancer is associated with smoking. It is estimated that 30% of cancers of the penis are caused by cigarette smoking.

Cancer of the anus: Research indicates that there are increased risks associated with smoking and cancers of the anus. Overall, 48% of anal cancer in males and 41% in females is caused by smoking.

Cancer of the liver: Liver cancer is relatively uncommon in developed countries, but a major cause of death in many developing countries. Chronic infection with Hepatitis-B virus and exposure to food-borne carcinogens are considered high risk factors in these populations. In populations where exposures to these risk factors are low or negligible, research is increasingly suggesting that smoking may be an independent risk factor for liver cancer. However, the lack of consistency among studies does not favour a causal interpretation.

Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma: Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a particular type of cancer found in the alveolar space (the small air sacs within the lungs, where oxygen is transferred into the bloodstream). This cancer is clinically and pathologically different from other cell types of lung cancer, and until recently was thought to be unrelated to smoking, due to its comparatively high incidence among non-smokers. Recent research now suggests that for a majority of cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is related to smoking. However due to its level of incidence among non-smokers, tobacco use cannot be considered the only factor in disease causation.

Prostate Cancer: Although smoking has not been shown to be responsible for the development of prostate cancer, smokers may be at greater risk for more aggressive disease, or cancer that advances more rapidly.

More information on quitting smoking

How to quit smoking? - Many smokers know they need to quid smoking to avoid health risk. Smoking cessation is of the most importance for people who is suffering from unpleasant smoking symptoms.
What health effects are associated with smoking? - The main health risks in tobacco smoking pertain to diseases of the respiratory tract and also to diseases of the cardiovascular system, in particular smoking being a major risk factor for a myocardial infarction (heart attack).
What're the constituents of tobacco smoke? - Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of several thousand chemical compounds. These include particulates (tar) of sticky solids, gases such as carbon monoxide, and volatiles. Most importantly, the smoke contains nicotine ĘC the addictive drug.
Smoking and lung cancer - Lung cancer is directly related to smoking. Over 40 carcinogens have been identified in cigarette smoke. The risk of developing lung cancer is directly related to the number of cigarettes smoked.
Smoking and cardiovascular disease - There are a number of cardiovascular diseases that can be related to smoking. They include heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Smoking aggravates and accelerates of the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the arterial walls.
Smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) - Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease in which the lung is damaged, making it hard to breathe. Prolonged tobacco use causes lung inflammation and variable degrees of air sack (alveoli) destruction.
Other cancers caused by or associated with smoking - Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancers of the oral cavity, oesophagus and larynx. Smoking is a cause of bladder cancer. Cigarette smoking is at least a contributory and may be a causal factor in the development of pancreatic cancer.
Women's health and smoking - Women smokers suffer all the consequences of smoking that men do such as increased of risk various cancers (lung, mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, kidney, and bladder) and respiratory diseases.
Harm to human body by smoking - Chemicals in tobacco cause damage to the macula (the most sensitive part of the retina, the back of the eye). Smoking is a risk factor for all cancers associated with the larynx, oral cavity and oesophagus.
What is passive smoking? - "Passive smoking" or "secondhand smoke" - also known as "environmental tobacco smoke" (ETS) or "involuntary smoking" - occurs when the ambient smoke from one person's cigarette is inhaled by other people.
Health hazards of passive smoking - Some of the immediate effects of passive smoking include eye irritation, headache, cough, sore throat, dizziness and nausea. Adults with asthma can experience a significant decline in lung function when exposed, while new cases of asthma may be induced in children whose parents smoke.
How to avoid passive smoking? - Let your visitors know your home is a smoke-free zone, request them to smoke outside. Ask your visitors to put off the cigarette before entering your room. Ask to be seated in non-smoking areas as far from smokers as possible when dining out.
What is a smoking addiction? - A smoking addiction means a person has formed an uncontrollable dependence on cigarettes to the point where stopping smoking would cause severe emotional, mental, or physical reactions.
Why quit smoking? - Smoking increases the risk of respiratory diseases such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smokers have twice the risk of dying of heart attacks, as do non-smokers.
How to stop smoking? - Quitting smoking is a lot like losing weight; it takes a strong commitment over a long period of time. Withdrawal from nicotine has two parts - the physical and the psychological.
Cigar smoking and health - A cigar is defined, for tax purposes, as "any roll of tobacco wrapped in leaf tobacco or in any substance containing tobacco," while a cigarette is "any roll of tobacco wrapped in paper or any substance not containing tobacco.
What smoking cessation medications are available? - Nicotine for NRT is available by prescription as an inhaler or nasal spray (Nicotrol Inhaler and Nicotrol NS).
Changes in body weight and smoking cessation - Smokers weigh, on average, around 3 kg less than non-smokers, although heavy smokers are more likely to be moderately or severely overweight. For many people, the fear of gaining weight prevents them from quitting smoking.
Health benefits of quitting smoking - Smoking cessation has major and immediate health benefits for men and women of all ages. The health benefits of smoking cessation far exceed any risks from the average 2.3 kg (5 pound) weight gain or any adverse psychological effects that may follow quitting.
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All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005, health-cares.net, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005