What about obesity surgery?
Obesity surgery is recommended as a treatment option for persons with obesity that have: 1) a BMI > 40 or 2) a BMI of 35 to 39.9 with serious medical conditions. Obesity surgery is used to modify the stomach and or intestines to reduce the amount of food that can be eaten. Surgery is a well-established method for long-term weight control for persons with severe obesity.
Much progress has been made to develop safer and more effective procedures used in obesity surgery today.
Before surgery, patients should be informed about the risks and benefits. Patients should be motivated and committed to making a lifestyle change after surgery. Obesity surgery helps you lose weight by changing the way your body digests and absorbs food. Your body digests food to break down what you eat into small pieces of nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals). When the pieces are small enough, the cells of your body absorbthe nutrients to give you energy to live. Digestion and absorption begin in the stomach, continue through the small intestine and end in the large intestine, which digests and absorbs what it can and eliminates the rest as waste. Obesity surgery involves making changes to the stomach and/or small intestine.
Two forms of surgery have been recommended by government consensus panels that can be performed to treat severe obesity. Both are for people with severe cases of obesity, over 100 lbs above ideal body weight (e.g., BMI >40 kg/m2*) who have not had effective weight loss with diet, exercise and drugs.
Gastroplasty involves surgically reducing the size of the stomach. About 40% of patients lose half of their extra weight the first year. Gastric bypass surgery creates a small stomach pouch and connects this pouch to the second portion of the intestines. This surgery is more extensive and difficult to perform than gastroplasty, but it is also more effective. From initial evaluation to post-operative follow up, requires careful monitoring for the first two-year period by a multidisciplinary teams of surgeons, physicians, psychologist and allied health professionals to counsel on special diets, exercise and monitoring for a lifetime. Liposuction is not a treatment for obese patients. It is a way to remove fat cells at certain points of the body for cosmetic reasons, but this operation alone does nothing to solve problems like overeating.
Improvements in surgical techniques have resulted in considerable progress in safety, effectiveness and long-term integrity for promoting weight loss. Within 30 days of surgery, 93.4% of patients from a national registry reported no complications from surgery. Weight loss usually occurs soon after obesity surgery and continues for 18 months to two years. Most patients regain some weight after this time, however few regain it all. After five years, patients have reported maintaining a weight loss of 60% of excess weight. Patients will often see improvements in obesity-related medical conditions that they had before surgery such as diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance, high cholesterol/triglycerides, hypertension, and sleep apnea. In general, 60% of patients with obesity-related medical conditions are no longer on medication for these conditions three years after surgery. Patients have reported an enhanced quality of life, improved mobility and stamina, better mood, self-esteem and interpersonal effectiveness, and lessened self-consciousness.
More information on obesity
What is obesity? - Obesity is a condition in which the natural energy reserve of a mammal. In humans, the current measurement of obesity is the body mass index (BMI).
What is morbid obesity? - Morbid obesity is clinically severe obesity or extreme obesity.
What is central obesity? - Central obesity (or 'apple-shaped' or 'masculine' obesity), is when the main deposits of body fat are localised around the abdomen and the upper body.
What is the body mass index (BMI)? - The body mass index (BMI) is a mathematical formula that uses your weight and height information to calculate your body mass.
What causes obesity? - Genetic, environmental, psychological, and other factors may all play a role in the development of obesity.
What're health risks associated with obesity? - Obesity has been linked to several serious medical conditions including: insulin resistance, heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure, type 2 (adult-onset) diabetes, cancer, gallbladder disease and gallstones.
How obesity is measured? - A number of tools are available to measure obesity. Most are based on height and weight ratios, body size and shape, and percent body fat.
How common is obesity? - Most health professionals say that obesity is an epidemic. Obesity in the adult population has doubled since 1980.
What's the treatment of obesity? - The mainstay of treatment for obesity is an energy-limited diet and increased exercise.
What's the dietary therapy for treatment of obesity? - Dietary therapy involves instruction on how to adjust a diet to reduce the number of calories eaten. Reducing calories moderately is essential to achieve a slow but steady weight loss, which is also important for maintenance of weight loss.
What's the exercise therapy (physical activity) for obesity treatment? - The primary goal of this therapy is to move sedentary people into an active category (even if it is moderate levels of intensity) and to move moderate level individuals into more vigorous levels.
What's the behavior therapy (physical activity) for obesity treatment? - Behavior therapy involves changing diet and physical activity patterns and habits to new behaviors that promote weight loss.
What about the drug therapy for obesity treatment? - Drug therapy may be used for weight loss and weight maintenance. Patients should be regularly assessed to determine the effect and continuing safety of a drug.
What about obesity surgery? - Obesity surgery is used to modify the stomach and or intestines to reduce the amount of food that can be eaten.
What's childhood obesity? - Obesity in children and adolescents is a serious issue with many health and social consequences that often continue into adulthood.