health care  
 
All about diabetes mellitus causes of diabetes mellitus insulin types of diabetes type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes diabetes symptoms diabetes insipidus diabetic coma complications associated with diabetes mellitus diagnosis of diabetes mellitus diagnosis protocol for diabetes treatment of diabetes diabetes diet diabetes medications diabetes prevention juvenile diabetes treatment smoking and diabetes

What are other problems and complications associated with diabetes mellitus?

Many people with diabetes mellitus eventually develop complications, especially if it is not controlled well. Even if the diabetes is controlled well, complications can still occur. The good news is that short-term complications can be easy to fix and that proper treatment of diabetes mellitus usually delays complications. The bad news is that long-term complications are difficult to control and can cause someone to die earlier than normal. Keep in mind as you read this section that there are some individuals who have had diabetes mellitus for over 50 years and have experienced few complications.

A very common short-term complication of diabetes mellitus is hypoglycemia (abnormally low blood sugar levels). This complication can occur during treatment if the amount of food eaten and the amount of insulin taken are not balanced properly. Hypoglycemia is more common in people with Type I diabetes but can occur in people with Type II diabetes who take sulfonylurea drugs. Sulfonyurea drugs increase the production of insulin from cells in the pancreas. If untreated, hypoglycemia can cause seizures, which are involuntary muscle movements and/or decreased awareness of the environment due to overexcitement of nerve cells in the brain. Ketoacidosis (described in the section above) is an example of a short-term complication of diabetes.

High levels of sugar in the blood make it more difficult for the body to fight against infections. This can lead to infections of the urinary tract, which is the part of the body that deals with the formation and excretion of urine (pee). To excrete means to release from the body as waste. Skin infections can also result, as can vaginal yeast infections (a type of infection of the female reproductive organ). Small blood vessels throughout the body get damaged as a result of diabetes. Eye problems can develop as a complication, such as retinopathy (also known as diabetic retinopathy), which is damage to the retina and the blood vessels that serve it. The retina is an area at the back of the eye that is sensitive to light. Blood vessels are tube-shaped structures that carry blood to and from the heart. Both large and small blood vessels also start to break down quicker in people with diabetes mellitus. Blood may also have a difficult time moving throughout the body as a result of diabetes mellitus.

Another complication is peripheral neuropathy (also known as diabetic neuropathy), which is damage to nerve fibers outside of the brain or spine. Peripheral neuropathy can cause a gradual loss of sensation starting at the hands and feet, which sometimes moves up the arms and legs. Loss of feeling and poor blood circulation makes the body more susceptible to ulcers (open sores) and gangrene (tissue death due to poor blood supply or infection of a wound.). Peripheral neuropathy can also cause dizziness when standing up as well as impotence in men. Impotence is an inability to maintain an erect penis.

Kidney damage can occur as a complication of diabetes mellitus, which can lead to kidney failure. The kidneys are two organs located on each side of the spine, behind the stomach. The kidneys filter (remove) wastes from the blood. The kidney damage may need to be treated by a kidney transplant or dialysis. Dialysis is a technique in which one is hooked up to a machine that performs the functions of the kidneys, removing wastes and extra water from the blood.

Another complication of diabetes mellitus is a higher risk for atherosclerosis, which is a narrowing of arteries (blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart). Atherosclerosis can cause damage to large blood vessels, which is a major cause of stroke and coronary artery disease. A stroke is a burst artery (a type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart) or a blockage of an artery in the brain. Coronary artery disease is a narrowing of coronary arteries, which supply the heart with blood. The narrowing of coronary arteries causes heart damage. People with diabetes also have a greater chance to have increased levels of cholesterol, which can speed up the development of atherosclerosis. Cholesterol is a waxy, fatty substance found only in animal tissues.

High blood pressure, other heart disorders, and cataracts are additional complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Cataracts is a darkening of the lens in the eye. The lens is an organ located between the colored part of the eye, that bends light as it enters the eye. A very important issue for people with diabetes mellitus to be concerned about is good foot care. This is because one complication of diabetes mellitus is ulcers (open sores) on the feet. In severe cases, ulcers can develop into gangrene. Gangrene is death of a tissue, usually due to a loss of blood supply. If a foot sore develops, you should see the doctor immediately.

With good foot care, ulcers and infections can usually be prevented. Good foot care involves inspecting the feet and washing and drying the feet carefully. If the skin on the feet is dry, it is recommended to use a moisturizer to keep them moist. Good foot care also involves wearing comfortable shoes, not walking barefoot, cutting toenails straight across, and visiting the foot doctor regularly.

More information on diabetes mellitus

What is diabetes mellitus? - Diabetes mellitus is a a condition characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from the body's inability to use blood glucose for energy. Diabetes mellitus can result in coma. Over time, complications can include nerve injury, blindness, kidney failure, and premature atherosclerosis with all of its complications.
What causes diabetes mellitus? - Diabetes mellitus is a disorder caused by insufficient production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas, or insensitivity of cells to the effects of insulin. Insulin is responsible for the absorption of glucose into cells for their energy needs and into the liver and fat cells for storage.
What is insulin? - Insulin is a hormone that is produced by specialized cells (beta cells) of the pancreas. In addition to helping glucose enter the cells, insulin is also important in tightly regulating the level of glucose in the blood.
What types of diabetes mellitus are there? - There are four main types of diabetes mellitus. They are type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 3, and Gestational diabetes mellitus (type 4).
What is type 1 diabetes? - Formerly known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, type 1 diabetes is a life-long condition in which the pancreas stops making insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops most often in young people but can appear in adults.
What is type 2 diabetes? - Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes mellitus. People with type 2 diabetes produce insulin, but either do not make enough insulin or their bodies do not use the insulin they make. Type 2, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes, typically occurs after the age of 40 years.
What're signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus? - Type 2 diabetes almost always has a slow onset (often years). Early symptoms of Type 1 diabetes are often polyuria (frequent urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst, and consequent increased fluid intake).
What is diabetes insipidus? - Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, which cannot be reduced when fluid intake is reduced.
What is diabetic coma? - Diabetic coma is a medical emergency in which a person with diabetes is unconscious because the blood glucose level is too low or too high. Patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 are especially prone to this condition.
What are the complications of diabetes mellitus? - Many people with diabetes mellitus eventually develop complications. A very common short-term complication of diabetes mellitus is hypoglycemia (abnormally low blood sugar levels).
How to diagnose diabetes mellitus? - The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is usually prompted by recent symptoms of excessive urination (polyuria) and excessive thirst (polydipsia), often accompanied by weight loss. The diagnosis of other types of diabetes is made in many other ways.
Diagnosis protocol for diabetes - People over age 45 should be tested for diabetes. If the first blood glucose test is normal, they should be re-tested every three years. A diagnosis of diabetes is made when any three of these tests is positive, followed by a second positive test on a different day.
What is the treatment for diabetes? - Diabetes is a chronic disease with no cure, but it can almost always be managed effectively. Nowadays, the goal for diabetics is to avoid or minimize chronic diabetic complications, as well as to avoid acute problems of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia.
What type of diabetes diet is suggested? - For some people with diabetes mellitus, a healthy diet and weight loss is enough to keep glucose levels in the blood normal.
What medications are available for diabetes? - Oral diabetes medicines, or oral hypoglycemics, can lower blood glucose in people who have diabetes, but are able to make some insulin. Six FDA-approved oral diabetes medications are now on the market.
How to prevent diabetes? - Diabetes prevention is proven, possible, and powerful. Studies show that people at high risk for type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay the onset of the disease by losing 5 to 7 percent of their body weight.
What should a child diabetes do every day? - To control diabetes and prevent complications, blood glucose levels must be as close to a "normal" range as safely possible. Families should work with a health care provider to help set a child's or teen's targets for blood glucose levels.
Smoking and diabetes - There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that smoking is an independent risk factor for diabetes and that among people with diabetes, smoking aggravates the risk of serious disease and premature death.
Men's health Mainpage

Topics in men's health

Andropause
Atrial septal defect
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Low blood pressure (hypotension)
Cholesterol
Obesity
Diabetes mellitus
Alcoholism & drinking
Balanitis
Cryptorchidism (undescended testicle)
Orchitis
Epispadias
Bladder exstrophy
Epididymitis
Hypospadias (birth defect)
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)
Vasectomy
Micropenis
Impotence
Hair Loss (baldness)
Peyronie's disease
Phimosis
Benign prostatic Hyperplasia
Prostatitis
Kidney stones
Quit smoking
Ventricular septal defect (VSD)


All information is intended for reference only. Please consult your physician for accurate medical advices and treatment. Copyright 2005, health-cares.net, all rights reserved. Last update: July 18, 2005