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All about atrial septal defect (ASD) causes of atrial septal defect types of atrial septal defects symptoms of atrial septal defect diagnosis of atrial septal defect atrial septal defect treatments

What types of atrial septal defects are there?

There are many types of atrial septal defects. They are differentiated from each other by whether they involve other structures of the heart and how they are formed during the developmental process during early fetal development.

Ostium secundum atrial septal defect

The ostium secundum atrial septal defect is the most common type of atrial septal defect, and comprises 6-10% of all congenital heart diseases. The secundum atrial septal defect usually arises from an enlarged foramen ovale, inadequate growth of the septum secundum, or excessive absorption of the septum primum. 10 to 20 percent of individuals with ostium secundum ASDs also have mitral valve prolapse.

Ostium primum atrial septal defect

The ostium primum atrial septal defect (also known as an endocardial cushion defect) is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. This is sometimes known as an endocardial cushion defect because it often involves the endocardial cushion, which is the portion of the heart where the atrial septum meets the ventricular septum and the mitral valve meets the tricuspid valve.

Endocardial cushion defects are associated with abnormalities of the atrioventricular valves (the mitral valve and the tricuspid valve). These include the cleft mitral valve, and the single atrioventricular valve (a single large, deformed valve that flows into both the right ventricle and the left ventricle). Endocardial cushion defects are the most common congenital heart defect that is associated with Down's syndrome.

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect

A sinus venosus ASD is a type of atrial septum defect in which the defect in the septum involves the venous inflow of either the superior vena cava or the inferior vena cava. A sinus venosus ASD that involves the superior vena cava makes up 2 to 3% of all intraatrial communications. It is located at the junction of the superior vena cava and the right atrium. It is frequently associated with anomalous drainage of the right-sided pulmonary veins into the right atrium (instead of the normal drainage of the pulmonary veins into the left atrium).

More information on atrial septal defect

What is an atrial septal defect? - An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a group of congenital heart diseases that involve the inter-atrial septum of the heart. The inter-atrial septum is the tissue that separates the right and left atria from each other.
What causes atrial septal defect (ASD)?
- Some congenital heart defects may have a genetic link, either occurring due to a defect in a gene, a chromosome abnormality, or environmental exposure, causing heart problems to occur more often in certain families.
What are types of atrial septal defects? - There are many types of atrial septal defects. They are differentiated from each other by whether they involve other structures of the heart and how they are formed during the developmental process during early fetal development.
What are the symptoms of an atrial septal defect? - Many children have no symptoms and seem healthy. However, if the ASD is large, permitting a large amount of blood to pass through to the right side of the heart, the right atrium, right ventricle, and lungs will become overworked, and symptoms may be noted.
How is an atrial septal defect diagnosed? - Most individuals with a significant ASD are diagnosed in utero or in early childhood with the use of ultrasonography or auscultation of the heart sounds during physical examination.
What are treatment options for atrial septal defect? - An atrial septal defect is most commonly closed by open-heart surgery. The surgeon may be able to directly close the hole with sutures or, depending on the size and shape of the hole, may need to close it with a patch.
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